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Growing and fertilizing wheat

Fertilizing wheat - which fertilizer to choose for wheat?

nawożenie pszenicy - jaki nawóz pod pszenicę wybrać

Growing and fertilizing wheat - basic information

Winter wheat has quite high thermal requirements during the entire growing season. Sunny autumn increases frost resistance. Depending on the variety, it withstands frosts down to -20°C, and even down to -25°C under snow cover. It likes warm autumn, short winter and early, sunny spring, and even, moderate rainfall

Proper tillage influences the yield and determines the efficiency of production. The field prepared for sowing should create such conditions that the grain is placed at the same depth (2-3 cm).

Depending on the date of sowing and soil conditions in the field, we should establish the appropriate sowing rate. If we sow the seeds in late September - early October in moist soil, the sowing rate in the range of 150-170 kg/ha is enough to ensure the appropriate plant density.

If the sowing takes place at a later date or the soil conditions are worse - the soil is dry or on heavy soils, then the sowing rate should be increased by 10-15 percent.

Dressing of seed material

Treatment of seeds is a good, safe and inexpensive way to protect plants against diseases. It is advisable to add seed fertilizer to the dressing together with the plant protection. It is even more advisable in the conditions of permanent soil drought. The seed fertilizer should contain micronutrients, amino acids and vitamins that stimulate the seed germination energy, as well as the intensity of growth and development of the plant root system in the initial stage of their development.

Fertilization for wheat

One of the elements of the autumn agrotechnics of cereals that we have a direct influence on is fertilization of wheat - macro and microelements.

Winter wheat, to produce a ton of main crop (grain) with the corresponding secondary crop (straw), takes on average 23 kg of nitrogen (N), 10 kg of phosphorus (P2O5), 20 kg of potassium (K2O), 5 kg of magnesium (MgO) and 5 kg calcium (CaO) (Czuba 1996). This means that with a yield of 8 t/ha, wheat must take up 184 kg N, 80 kg P2O5, 160 kg K2O, 40 kg MgO and 40 kg CaO. Most of these ingredients must be provided to plants in mineral fertilizers.

Sulfur doses in the cultivation of cereals depend on its content in the soil and range from 25 kg S/ha with an average content of up to 35 kg S/ha - with a very low content. If the content of this macronutrient in the soil is high, let alone very high, there is no need to fertilize with sulfur.

Winter wheat is grown in the best soils. This cereal is recommended to be cultivated on the soils of very good and good wheat (class I to IIIb), very good rye (class IIIa and IIIb), mountain wheat and mountain wheat and strong grain-fodder soil. On weaker soils, for example good rye complex (class IVa and IVb), more attention should be paid to the selection of the variety and the soil kept in high culture.

Phosphorus is best to be applied whole in the fall 10-14 days before sowing wheat to give the plants a good start.

The approach to nitrogen fertilization of wheat should be slightly different. First of all, it should be noted that wheat takes up nitrogen in the autumn in relatively small amounts. Therefore, soils that are well cultivated do not usually require nitrogen fertilization in autumn.

Fertilization of winter wheat with sulfur

If we want to obtain a high quantitative and qualitative yield (protein) of winter wheat, fertilization with sulfur S should not be forgotten. It is assumed that the dose of sulfur for rapeseed should be 30 to 50 kg S/ha.

Selection of fertilizers

In the case of cultivation in a stand after cereals, maize or rape, the straw of which has been plowed in, fertilizers with a narrower ratio of phosphorus to potassium content should be selected.

Dates of application of fertilizers for wheat

Fertilizers for winter wheat are usually spread before sowing plowing, which must be carried out 2-3 weeks before sowing.

The date of sowing wheat

The optimal date for sowing wheat, depending on the region, is from mid-September to the end of the first decade of October (preferably to the end of September).

It is advisable that it should be partially branched in winter. Depending on the sowing density, plants should produce 2 to 3 side stalks.

Foliar feeding of winter wheat

Winter wheat (especially in weaker positions, with a high share of cereals in the sowing structure) positively responds to foliar feeding of plants.

Micronutrients in wheat

Among the cereals, wheat has the greatest demand for copper and manganese, while it is less sensitive to zinc deficiency. How might the need for these nutrients be manifested and what might be the consequences of not fertilizing the wheat?

Table. Symptoms of copper and manganese deficiency, conditions for revealing shortages and production outcomes.

Microelement

(nutrients)

Deficiency symptoms

Conditions favorable for the occurrence of shortages

Production outcomes

Copper Cu

  • wilted appearance of plants
  • left-hand twisting of the leaf blade
  • leaves narrow and drooping with whitened tips
  • leaf wilting (regardless of the plant's water supply)
  • lack of formed ears
  • ears whitened
  • short internodes the plants are easier to lodge - thin and brittle stems
  • sandy peaty soils, rich in organic matter with a pH above 6.5
  • poorly oxygenated soils
  • prolonged drought and high temperatures
  • poor seed setting
  • increased susceptibility to lodging
  • decrease in gluten and protein content
  • reduction of grain yield

Manganese Mn

  • chlorosis of young leaves
  • chlorotic changes in the form of point spots between the nerves, and with a strong chlorosis deficiency turns into necrosis
  • the leaf blade bends inward along the median nerve
  • soil with a neutral and alkaline reaction
  • freshly limed acidic soil
  • organic soils
  • chernozem and black soils
  • decrease in protein content
  • poor grain formation
  • decrease in health and winter hardiness of plants
  • yield reduction

Source: Hołubowicz-Kliza G. 2003; Rosada J. and oth. 20

 

Multicomponent foliar fertilizers, in which amino acids will be the carrier of micronutrients, are better absorbed by plants.

Amino acids, thanks to their full compatibility with the metabolism of fertilized plants, ensure quick and easy transport of nutrients inside plants to the places where the deficiency of a given nutrient is greatest.

The effect of these fertilizers can be compared to providing plants with a large dose of energy that can be easily used against stress or to stimulate growth. In addition, by increasing the leaf surface, chlorophyll content and the intensity of photosynthesis, we can obtain higher and better-quality crops.

Important in foliar fertilization: it should be remembered that the working liquid should be prepared immediately before the treatment, moreover, the working liquid should have an appropriate pH (pH). It is additionally very important when applying foliar fertilizers with fungicides and insecticides. Here, foliar fertilizers that lower the pH of the solution to about 4.3 work very well. When combined with fungicides and insecticides, the working solution has a pH of about 5.5, which is the most available for plants.

Nitrogen fertilization

The spring resumption of vegetation is a period of intensive nutrient uptake. Nitrogen has the greatest influence on the growth, development and productivity of plants, and its early application guarantees a good start for plants. There are many benefits to fertilizing winter wheat with nitrogen, but it needs to be implemented at the right time.

Dates of fertilization of winter wheat with nitrogen

Spring foliar fertilization of wheat

I STARTING DOSE - We begin with the initial dose after starting the spring vegetation (early spring). The purpose of foliar fertilization in this phase is to:

Develop a (deep) root system. Increase the plant's resistance to low temperatures. Maintain the correct color of the leaves. Improve of the condition of cereals after winter.

II ENERGIZING DOSE - The purpose of foliar fertilization of wheat in this phase is to:

Improve resistance to stress related to drought (which has often taken place in recent years). Influence on the proper development of the flag leaf. Maintain the correct color of the leaves.

III ENERGIZING DOSE - Supports the process of pouring grain. Increases quality parameters - biological value of grain. Maintains the correct color of the flag leaf.

Spring cultivation of winter wheat

Intensive cultivation of winter wheat requires protection against lodging. Growth regulators not only shorten the plants, but also stiffen and strengthen the stem, which ultimately also affects the quality of the grain.

Which fertilizer to choose for wheat?

If, after reading the article, you have any doubts how to properly implement wheat fertilization in your crops - contact us! Our qualified staff will be happy to answer your questions and advise which fertilizer to choose for your wheat.

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