Maize is a family that has very high nutritional requirements, and its initial development is determined by a number of different factors, including pre-sowing fertilization. It is this treatment that determines the correct initial development of maize and affects its future yield.
The dose of compounds that maize needs depends, among others, on two factors:
With a yield of 10 tons of green fodder, maize consumes approximately: 38 kg of nitrogen (N), 14 kg of phosphorus (P2O5), 45 kg of potassium (K2O), 20 kg of calcium (CaO), 12 kg of magnesium (MgO), 5 kg of sulfur (S) or / and 17 g of boron (B), 13 g of copper (Cu), 150 g of manganese (Mn), 1.5 g of molybdenum (Mo) and 150 g of zinc (Zn).
Corn grown for grain takes for every 1 ton of grain and the appropriate weight of straw: 30 kg of nitrogen (N), 12 kg of phosphorus (P2O5), 30 kg of potassium (K2O), 10 kg of calcium (CaO), 10 kg of magnesium (MgO), 3.5 kg of sulfur (S) or as SO3 - 9 kg of SO3 and 11 g of boron (B), 14 g of copper (Cu), 110 g of manganese (Mn), 0.9 g of molybdenum (Mo) and 85 g zinc (Zn).
Phosphorus and potassium are elements that have a huge share in the yield.
Both have a significant influence on the cob setting and their graining. That is why it is so important to fertilize corn with these ingredients in the amounts that it needs.
However, phosphorus is poorly absorbed in low temperatures, which causes inhibition of growth in maize and reddening of leaves. Bearing this in mind, phosphorus should be supplemented with microelements, feeding the plant by foliar application.
Potassium also regulates the water balance and nitrogen uptake in maize. Plants that received the correct dose of potassium show greater resistance to drought.
Long-acting forms of nitrogen are recommended for nitrogen fertilization of maize. This is because maize takes up nitrogen most intensively in the pre-flowering phase up to the cob production phase. Therefore, we should use fertilizers such as, for example, ammonium nitrate, calcium ammonium nitrate or UAN. However, the amide form of nitrogen contained in urea is the most recommended because it is released for a long time.
Micronutrient fertilization is very important in the cultivation of this demanding plant. Corn shows the greatest sensitivity to zinc deficiency, high sensitivity to boron deficiency and average to copper and manganese deficiencies. The natural resources of these micronutrients in Polish soils do not ensure the proper development of plants, therefore the demand of maize for these ingredients must also be covered by foliar feeding.
We can start foliar feeding of maize from the 4 - 6 leaf stage. The assimilation area of the leaves then allows for good nutrient uptake. Feeding can be repeated until the maize can be driven into the corn without damaging it.
Not only the number of foliar treatments is important, but also the form of the ingredients. Foliar fertilizers should be administered in a form that is available for plants. Ideal foliar fertilizers should be characterized by a high concentration of nutrients, full solubility at low water temperatures, good miscibility and high tolerance to combination with plant protection products.